What are the adaptive features of a plant parasitic nematode?
Although plant parasitism has evolved repeatedly, all plant-parasitic nematodes have at least one common morphological adaptation, the presence of a syringe-like feeding tool, or stylet, which is used to extract nutrients from plant cells and which, in some species, can also be used to introduce nematode-derived …
What are the plants parasitic nematodes?
Plant parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms which are generally filiform (at least at one of their stages), ranging from 0.5 mm (e.g. Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus) to 4–5 mm (e.g. Xiphinema). A wide variety of nematodes affect plants and some of them have a significant economic impact on commercial crops.
How do you identify a parasitic nematode?
The common plant-parasitic nematode genera are fairly easy to identify to that level using a standard compound microscope. Identification of nematodes to the species level often requires detailed morphological analysis, growth of the nematode on different host plants, or DNA or isozyme analysis.
What are the characteristics of nematodes?
Characteristics of Nematoda
- Their body is bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic.
- They are cylindrical in shape.
- They exhibit tissue level organization.
- Their body has a cavity or pseudocoelom.
- The alimentary canal is distinct, with the mouth and the anus.
- They are sexually dimorphic.
What are diagnostic characteristics of nematodes?
Nematodes are bilaterally symmetrical, elongate, and usually tapered at both ends. Some species possess a pseudocoel, a fluid-filled body cavity between the digestive tract and the body wall. Like arthropods and members of six other phyla, nematodes secrete an external cuticle that is periodically molted.
What are the general characteristics of the Aphasmids?
Mainly, they are free-living in soil and water; however, there are a few parasitic forms of aphasmids. As the alternate name implies, they do not have phasmids, and the amphids are located posteriorly on the head region. In fact, they have no sensory bristles or papillae on the head and body.
How do plants control parasitic nematodes?
Endophytic fungi reduce the attack of the plant-parasitic nematodes by parasitism, by paralyzing the nematodes, through antibiosis, by lytic enzymes production and also by space competition.
What are examples of parasitic nematodes?
Nematodes parasitic on humans include ascaris, filarial nematodes, hookworms, pinworms, and whipworms. Species include Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus, etc. They can attack the muscles, alimentary canal, eyes, and other body tissues.
Why are plant-parasitic nematodes important?
Free- living nematodes are very important in maintaining the soil bio-dynamic system, especially in soil with low organic matter content, whereas PPNs feed on plants and reduce crop growth and yield efficiency.