What is an example of atom economy?
A Diels-Alder reaction is an example of a potentially very atom efficient reaction that also can be chemo-, regio-, diastereo- and enantioselective. Catalytic hydrogenation comes the closest to being an ideal reaction that is extensively practiced both industrially and academically.
What are some basic characteristics of reactions that have high atom economy?
4. High atom economy characteristically involves rearrangement or addition (e.g. Diels- Alder, Claisen) rather than substitution or elimination processes (e.g. Wittig, Grignard), and makes use of catalytic rather than stoichoimetric reagents.
What types of reaction have the highest atom economy?
Because addition reactions in general lead to the incorporation of all the atoms of the reactants into the final desired products, addition reactions result in high atom economy.
Why reactions with high atom economy are used in industry?
The atom economy of a chemical reaction is a measure of the percentage of reactants that become useful products. Efficient processes have high atom economies, and are important for sustainable development, as they use fewer natural resources and create less waste.
Do you include solvent in atom economy?
Atom economy also must consider substances such as solvents, separation agents and drying agents that are used in the process but are not directly part of the chemical reaction. In an ideal chemical process, the amount of starting materials or reactants equals the amount of all products generated and no atom is wasted.
Why is it important to have high atom economy?
The atom economy of a chemical reaction is a measure of the percentage of reactants that become useful products. Efficient processes have high atom economies, and are important for sustainable development, as they use fewer natural resources and create less waste. …
What is high atom economy?
A process which uses many atoms not found in the final product is said to have low atom economy, whereas a process in which most atoms of the starting material and reactants end up in the final product is said to have high atom economy.
Is it possible for a reaction to have 100% atom economy?
Calculating atom economy The maximum atom economy possible for a reaction is 100%. This will be the case if there is only one product (the desired product) and no by-products.
What is a high atom economy?
Why is it important to use a reaction with a high atom economy?
What is the difference between percentage yield and atom economy?
Atom economy gives information about the efficiency of the reaction whereas percentage yield gives information about how much product is made.
Can a reaction have a 100% atom economy?
Note 1: These reactions contrast with the 100% atom economy of ammonia production (for which much of the hydrogen is made), Note 2: In organic chemistry, these three types of reaction can never have a 100% atom economy because there are always at least two products – desired useful product and often a waste product e.g.
Which is an example of the atom economy?
This is illustrated by using the blast furnace reaction from example 14.2a.3 above. Using the atomic masses of Fe = 56, C = 12, O = 16, we can calculate the atom economy for extracting iron. out of a total mass of reactants or products of 160 + 84 = 112 + 132 = 244.
How to calculate the atom economy of iron?
Using the atomic masses of Fe = 56, C = 12, O = 16, we can calculate the atom economy for extracting iron. out of a total mass of reactants or products of 160 + 84 = 112 + 132 = 244. Therefore the atom economy = 100 x 112 / 244 = 45.9%
How to calculate atom economy in rearrangement reactions?
Atom Economy in Rearrangement Reactions • Equation 4 % Atom Economy = (FW of atoms utilized/FW of all reactants) X 100 = (84/84) X 100 = 100% Scheme 1 Atom Economy in The Clorohydrin Route to Ethylene Oxide % Atom Economy = (FW of atoms utilized/FW of all reactants) X 100 = (44/189) X 100 = 23%