How can we measure the soundness of aggregates?
Soundness is the percentage loss of material from an aggregate blend during the sodium or magnesium sulfate soundness test. This test, which is specified in ASTM C88 and AASHTO T104, estimates the resistance of aggregate to in-service weathering. It can be performed on both coarse and fine aggregate.
Which laboratory test is used to determine the soundness of aggregate for concrete?
The standard soundness test is: AASHTO T 104 and ASTM C 88: Soundness of Aggregate by Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate.
How do you test for sodium sulfate?
To test for Sulfate Ions
- Add sodium sulfate solution to the test-tube until the tube is 1/3 full.
- Add barium chloride solution drop wise.
- A white precipitate indicates a sulfate ion.
What is ASTM C88?
ASTM C88 – 13 Standard Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate.
What is the size of fine aggregate?
The size of fine aggregates is defined as 4.75mm or smaller. That is, aggregates which can be passed through a number 4 sieve, with a mesh size of 4.75mm. Fine aggregates include things such as sand, silt and clay. Crushed stone and crushed gravel might also fall under this category.
How do you calculate aggregate impact value?
- The test sample shall consist of aggregate the whole of which passes a 12.5 mm IS Sieve and is retained on a 10 mm IS Sieve.
- The measure shall be filled about one-third full with the aggregate and tamped with 25 strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod.
What are the types of aggregate?
Aggregate is a landscaping term that’s used to describe coarse to medium grain material. The most common types of aggregate that are used in landscaping include: crushed stone, gravel, sand, and fill. Varying in material and stone size, each type can have its own purpose when it comes to landscaping projects.
How many types of aggregate test are there?
Bitumen adhesion test
|Property of aggregate||Type of Test||Test Method|
|Crushing strength||Crushing test||IS : 2386 (part 4) -1963|
|Hardness||Los Angeles abrasion test||IS : 2386 (Part 5)-1963|
|Toughness||Aggregate impact test||IS : 2386 (Part 4)-1963|
|Durability||Soundness test- accelerated durability test||IS : 2386 (Part 5)-1963|
How do you get sodium sulfate?
The known production processes to obtain sodium sulfate are by means of the cooling crystallization to produce Galuber’s salt or mirabilite from concentrated sodium sulfate solutions; by means of the crystallization by water vaporization of practically pure concentrated sodium sulfate solutions, and by means of …
What is sulfate soundness?
Description. The most common soundness test involves repeatedly submerging an aggregate sample in a saturated solution of sodium or magnesium sulfate. This process causes salt crystals to form in the aggregate pores, which simulate ice crystal formation (Figures 1 and 2).
What is flaky aggregate?
The flakiness index is defined as the percentage (by mass) of stones in an aggregate having an ALD of less than 0.6 times their average dimension. Flaky aggregates tend to produce seals with less voids due to their tendency to pack more tightly than cubical aggregates, consequently flaky particles require less binder.
What is Micro Deval test?
Micro-Deval. * The Micro-Deval abrasion test is a test of coarse. aggregate to determine abrasion loss in the presence of water and an abrasive charge.
How to test the sound of an aggregate?
ASTM C 88, Standard test method for soundness of aggregates using sodium or magnesium sulfate. Following apparatus is required to perform this test. Containers – for immersion of aggregates in the solution, baskets made of wire mesh or sieve are considered satisfactory containers.
How to test the sound of magnesium sulfate?
5.1 Soundness Test: 5.1.1 Immerse samples in the prepared solution of sodium or magnesium sulfate for 16 to 18 hours. The solution must cover the samples by at least 12.5 mm (0.5 in.).
What happens to the sample on the soundness test?
The soundness test repeatedly submerges an aggregate sample in a sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate solution. This process causes salt crystals to form in the aggregate’s water permeable pores.
What causes salt crystals to form in aggregate?
An aggregate sample is subjected to a number of cycles (usually 5 cycles) of submergence in a sulfate solution (either sodium sulfate, Na 2 SO 4, or magnesium sulfate, MgSO 4) followed by drying in air. This process causes salt crystals to form in the aggregate’s water permable pores.