Which skeletal abnormalities are typical for Down syndrome?
The most common musculoskeletal effects of Down syndrome include weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and ligaments that are too loose (ligament laxity). This leads to excessive joint flexibility.
What major genetic abnormalities are associated with Down syndrome?
Down syndrome results when abnormal cell division involving chromosome 21 occurs. These cell division abnormalities result in an extra partial or full chromosome 21. This extra genetic material is responsible for the characteristic features and developmental problems of Down syndrome.
What body parts are affected by Down syndrome?
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that can affect many different parts of the body. An extra part or whole Chromosome 21 is the cause of Down syndrome. It is the most common chromosomal abnormality. This syndrome can affect the heart, the brain, the hormone system and the skeleton.
Do people with Down syndrome have weaker bones?
Conclusions: Adults with DS have lower bone mineral density compared to the general population and they experience a steeper decline with age.
When does a child with Down syndrome walk?
Some babies with Down syndrome start walking the same time as any other child, typically around the age of 2. Some babies with Down syndrome will start walking at the same time as any other child, typically around the age of two. If there are difficulties or you have any concerns, speak to your doctor.
Why are Down syndrome so flexible?
The ligaments that hold the bones together in the joints of children with Down Syndrome are longer than usual resulting in increased flexibility in joints. This is very noticeable in a child with Down Syndrome’s hips, feet and shoulders.
Is Down syndrome a disability?
Down syndrome is the most frequent chromosomal cause of mild to moderate intellectual disability, and it occurs in all ethnic and economic groups. The degree of intellectual disability in people with Down syndrome varies but is usually mild to moderate.
How do you know if someone has Down syndrome?
Some common physical features of Down syndrome include:
- A flattened face, especially the bridge of the nose.
- Almond-shaped eyes that slant up.
- A short neck.
- Small ears.
- A tongue that tends to stick out of the mouth.
- Tiny white spots on the iris (colored part) of the eye.
- Small hands and feet.
When do Down syndrome babies talk?
Typically, these children have a much harder time learning to talk (expressive language) than with understanding what they hear (receptive language). On average, children with Down syndrome start using words around 16 months of age—about 6 months later than other children.