What is the pathophysiology of an upper GI bleed?

What is the pathophysiology of an upper GI bleed?

Pathogenesis. The main inciting event in the pathogeneis of upper GI bleeding is damage to mucosal injury. This mucosal injury can occur at various levels of GI tract. If the damage and bleeding is confined up to ligament of Treitz, it is defined as upper GI bleeding.

What are the three main presentations of GI bleeding?

Clinical presentations of gastrointestinal bleeding are classified as overt (acute), occult (chronic) or obscure and the corresponding diagnostic algorithms are illustrated through review of the key evidence and consensus guidelines. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy are the mainstay of initial investigations.

What is an upper GI bleeding?

Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding refers to bleeding that occurs anywhere in the esophagus, the stomach, or the upper part of the small intestine. It is a symptom of an underlying disorder, and it can be serious.

What is the difference between upper GI bleeding and lower GI bleeding?

Upper GI bleeding: The upper GI tract includes the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach), stomach, and first part of the small intestine. Lower GI bleeding: The lower GI tract includes much of the small intestine, large intestine or bowels, rectum, and anus.

What is the most common cause of upper GI bleeding?

Peptic ulcer. This is the most common cause of upper GI bleeding. Peptic ulcers are sores that develop on the lining of the stomach and upper portion of the small intestine.

What are the variables that contribute to an upper GI bleed?

Common risk factors for upper GI bleeding include prior upper GI bleeding, anticoagulant use, high-dose nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and older age. Causes of upper GI bleeding include peptic ulcer bleeding, gastritis, esophagitis, variceal bleeding, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, and cancer.

Why are upper GI bleeds black?

Black or tarry stools may be due to bleeding in the upper part of the GI (gastrointestinal) tract, such as the esophagus, stomach, or the first part of the small intestine. In this case, blood is darker because it gets digested on its way through the GI tract.

What are the symptoms of an upper GI bleed?

What are the symptoms of GI bleeding?

  • black or tarry stool.
  • bright red blood in vomit.
  • cramps in the abdomen.
  • dark or bright red blood mixed with stool.
  • dizziness or faintness.
  • feeling tired.
  • paleness.
  • shortness of breath.

What are the complications of upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

Complications of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Symptoms include chest pain, dizziness, fatigue, weakness, headaches, shortness of breath, and lack of mental clarity. Hypovolemia — In cases of severe blood loss due to an acute GI bleed, a person’s heart may have difficulty pumping enough blood throughout the body.

What are the signs and symptoms of an upper GI bleed?

What is a risk factor for upper GI bleed?

Some of the most common risk factors for nonvariceal UGIB include Helicobacter pylori infection, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and other antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications.

What are the 3 types of bleeding?

There are three main types of bleeding: arterial, venous, and capillary bleeding. Arterial bleeding occurs in the arteries, which transport blood from the heart to the body. Venous bleeding happens in the veins, which carry blood back to the heart.