What is a TAP block in anesthesia?
The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a relatively new regional anesthesia technique that provides analgesia to the parietal peritoneum as well as the skin and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. It has a high margin of safety and is technically simple to perform, especially under ultrasound guidance.
How do they do a TAP block?
A TAP block basically involves deposition of local anesthetic in the plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles to target the nerves passing through them. It is a field block, hence local anesthetic volumes required are high.
Is a TAP block painful?
A TAP block is usually done before surgical anesthesia wears off and takes about 20 minutes to become effective. The analgesic effects typically last up to 24 hours. The TAP block provides analgesia from the incisional pain in the stomach wall but does not block any pain in the internal organs in the abdomen.
Where is a TAP block given?
TAP: transversus abdominis plane. A midaxillary or lateral TAP block is performed by placing the probe at or anterior to the midaxillary line between the costal margin and iliac crest. It can provide lower abdominal wall analgesia from the midline to the midclavicular line [10, 26].
What nerves do tap blocks block?
These include the intercostal nerves (T7-T11), the subcostal nerve (T12), and the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves (L1). Figure 1. Cutaneous innervation of the abdominal wall . Coloured region is mostly blocked by a single injection posterior TAP block.
What nerves does a TAP block?
Where does TAP block numb?
What nerves does a TAP block cover?
This block covers T12-L1 dermatomes only, blocking the subcostal, iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal nerves. The QL1 block is used to provide analgesia for abdominal surgeries below the umbilicus.
Where is a TAP block placed?
Whilst the patient is in the supine position, a high frequency ultrasound probe is placed transverse to the abdominal wall between the costal margin and iliac crest. The image produced shows (from above downwards) skin, subcutaneous tissue, fat, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis.
What local anesthetic is used for TAP block?
In summary, based on the current knowledge, we suggest the use of dilute concentrations of local anesthetic (e.g., bupivacaine 0.2 to 0.25% or ropivacaine 0.2 to 0.25%) and injectate volumes of at least 15 ml (per side) for single-injection transversus abdominis plane blocks.
Are tap blocks effective?
TAP block showed an equivalent safety profile to all comparators in the incidence of nausea (OR = 1.07) and vomiting (OR = 0.81). TAP block was more effective in reducing morphine consumption [MD = 13.05, 95% CI (8.33, 51.23)] and in delaying time to first analgesic request [MD = 123.49, 95% CI (48.59, 198.39)].