What do you mean by Catenanes?
Catenanes are compounds in which two or more macrocycles are mechanically interlocked meaning that at least a chemical bond has to be broken to separate the component rings.
What are Catenanes in DNA?
Catenanes, or topologically linked circular molecules, were first extracted from living cells by Vinograd and co-workers (1,2). Because two newly replicated DNA molecules have to be separated into different daughter cells, they have to be unlinked.
What are Catenanes used for?
Stoddart’s research enabled the development of self-assembly processes and template-directed synthesis for the generation of a variety of mechanically interlocked molecules, the movements of which can be controlled. Such molecules have a wide range…
What are Catenanes and Rotaxanes?
Catenanes and rotaxanes differ from all other organic compounds synthesized to this date in a way that molecular subunits are linked mechanically. Catenane is a compound consisting of two or more rings that are interlocked mechanically without there being necessarily any chemical interaction/bond between the two.
Why are Catenanes formed?
There are two primary approaches to the organic synthesis of catenanes. The thermodynamically controlled synthesis provides an error correction mechanism; even if a macrocycle closes without forming a catenane it can re-open and yield the desired interlocked structure later.
What are Catenanes how they are resolved?
We have discovered that DNA gyrase interlocks duplex DNA circles to form catenanes and resolves catenanes into component monomers. Gyrase resolved both the oligomeric catenanes and interlocked networks it produced, as well as naturally occurring catenanes.
How are Catenanes formed?
A catenane is a mechanically-interlocked molecular architecture consisting of two or more interlocked macrocycles, i.e. a molecule containing two or more intertwined rings. Catenanes have been synthesised in two different ways: statistical synthesis and template-directed synthesis.
How are Catenanes generated?
When a catenane is synthesized by coordination of the macrocycles around a metal ion, then removal and re-insertion of the metal ion can switch the free motion of the rings on and off.
How many types of isomers are there?
There are two primary types of isomerism, which can be further categorized into different subtypes. These primary types are Structural Isomerism and Stereoisomerism.
Which is the correct definition of a catenane?
Catenane. A catenane is a mechanically-interlocked molecular architecture consisting of two or more interlocked macrocycles, i.e. a molecule containing two or more intertwined rings. The interlocked rings cannot be separated without breaking the covalent bonds of the macrocycles. Catenane is derived from the Latin catena meaning “chain”.
How many rings are there in a catenane?
In catenane nomenclature, a number in square brackets precedes the word “catenane” in order to indicate how many rings are involved. Discrete catenanes up to a catenane have been synthesised.
What are the functions of rotaxanes and catenanes?
Mechanically interlocked compounds such as rotaxanes and catenanes are functional molecular media for a host of applications including information storage, mechanical actuation, and drug release. Catenanes are another class of molecular machines, where cyclodextrins are widely used (291).
What was the first synthesis of a catenane?
This so-called “statistical approach” led to the first synthesis of a catenane; however, the method is highly inefficient, requiring high dilution of the “closing” ring and a large excess of the pre-formed ring, and is rarely used.