How is pentachlorophenol made?

How is pentachlorophenol made?

Pentachlorophenol is produced by the stepwise chlorination of phenols in the presence of catalysts (aluminum trichloride or ferric trichloride) (Pommer and Jaetsch 2012). Outside of the United States, it is also produced by the alkaline hydrolysis of hexachlorobenzene.

Why is pentachlorophenol bad?

Toxicity. Short-term exposure to large amounts of PCP can cause harmful effects on the liver, kidneys, blood, lungs, nervous system, immune system, and gastrointestinal tract. Long-term exposure to low levels, such as those that occur in the workplace, can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, blood, and nervous system.

Is pentachlorophenol a VOC?

Organic solvent-carried preservatives include pentachlorophenol, tributyl tin oxide and copper and zinc naphthenates as active ingredients, carried in hydrocarbon. The two former are under increasing environmental pressure, and as a group they are flammable with a high VOC.

Where is pentachlorophenol banned?

Stockholm Convention
The chemical is banned under the United Nation’s Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, a treaty the US signed but never ratified.

Is Penta toxic?

Penta is chronically highly toxic to cold and warm water fish and moderately toxic to other freshwater and marine organisms. Concentrations detected in rivers, streams, or surface water systems have been generally below lethal levels.

Is pentachlorophenol still used?

Pentachlorophenol was once one of the most widely used biocides in the United States, but it is now a restricted use pesticide and is no longer available to the general public. It was primarily used as a wood preservative.

Is pentachlorophenol a chlorinated solvent?

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a persistent chemical contaminant which has been extensively investigated in terms of its toxicology and metabolism. Similar to PCP, other chlorinated phenol derivatives are also widely present in the environment from various sources.

Is pentachlorophenol a carcinogen?

Human studies suggest an association between exposure to pentachlorophenol and cancer. Oral animal studies have reported increases in liver tumors and two uncommon tumor types. EPA has classified pentachlorophenol as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen.

What is penta treated wood?

Pentachlorophenol, often referred to as penta, is an industrial strength preservative used in wood pole treating since the 1930s. Used extensively in treating Douglas fir poles, penta has achieved a long record of service performance and safe use.

Is pentachlorophenol a PCB?

Hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic pollutants, such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are among the most important environmental pollutants in the twentieth century.

Is pentachlorophenol a dioxin?

Pentachlorophenol and by-products of its synthesis (hereinafter referred to collectively as “pentachlorophenol”) includes higher-chlorinated dioxins and furans, polychlorinated phenols, hexachloro benzene, and other by-products specified below, under Properties.

What happens when pentachlorophenol is added to oil?

PENTACHLOROPHENOL may react with strong oxidizing agents. Incompatible with strong bases, acid chlorides and acid anhydrides. Forms salts with alkaline metals. Solutions in oil cause natural rubber to deteriorate, but synthetic rubber may be used in equipment and for protective clothing (NTP, 1992).

When was pentachlorophenol registered as a pesticide?

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was registered as a pesticide on December 1, 1950. PCP was one of the most widely used biocides in the United States before 1987 when pentachlorophenol uses as an herbicide, defoliant, mossicide and disinfectant were removed from product labels.

What is the chemical formula of pentachlorophenol ( PCP )?

Pentachlorophenol (also referred to as PCP and penta) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon. Its molecular structure is that of a phenol group with five chlorine atoms. Its chemical formula is C 6HCl 5O, and as a synthetic fungicide, it is part of the organochloride family.

What do you use pentachlorophenol for in wood?

Penta is primarily used to treat wood utility poles and timber bridges. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and its substitutes, such as TeCP, have gained an increasing usage as fungicide, insecticide, mollusicide, algicide, disinfectant, and as an anti-fouling paint ingredient [5] since the early 1930s.