What is cytotoxic brain edema?

What is cytotoxic brain edema?

Abstract. Cytotoxic edema (CytE) is an increment in total brain water produced when the excess water swells cells rather than expanding the extracellular space. CytE contributes to brain swelling with a resultant increase of intracranial pressure (ICP).

Is cytotoxic edema the same as cerebral edema?

Cytotoxic cerebral edema refers to a type of cerebral edema, most commonly seen in cerebral ischemia, in which extracellular water passes into cells, resulting in their swelling. The term is frequently used in clinical practice to denote the combination of true cytotoxic edema and ionic cerebral edema.

What are the different types of cerebral edema?

Cerebral edema can result from a variety of derangements. The major types include vasogenic, cellular, osmotic, and interstitial. Through these mechanisms, cerebral edema stems from tumor, trauma, hypoxia, infection, metabolic derangements, or acute hypertension.

Why does cytotoxic cerebral edema occur?

Cellular (cytotoxic) cerebral edema refers to a cellular swelling [3]. It is seen in conditions like head injury and hypoxia. It results from the swelling of brain cells, most likely due to the release of toxic factors from neutrophils and/bacteria.

Why does vasogenic edema affect white matter?

Vasogenic cerebral edema iinvolves the escape of fluids and proteins from the vascular system into the extracellular space. Because the fluid can flow along fiber tracts, the swelling may be greater in white matter than in gray matter.

What does cytotoxic mean?

Listen to pronunciation. (SY-toh-TOK-sik AY-jent) A substance that kills cells, including cancer cells. These agents may stop cancer cells from dividing and growing and may cause tumors to shrink in size.

Can vasogenic edema be coded as cerebral edema?

It is appropriate to assign code 348.5, Cerebral edema, as a secondary diagnosis when it is present with a brain tumor and the physician documents the clinical significance of the cerebral edema/vasogenic edema and the condition was evaluated, monitored, or treated (AHA Coding Clinic for ICD-9-CM, 2009, third quarter.

Why is vasogenic edema white matter?

What cause vasogenic edema?

Vasogenic. Extracellular brain edema, or vasogenic edema, is caused by an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier consists of astrocytes and pericytes joined together with adhesion proteins producing tight junctions.

Can mannitol increase ICP?

Mannitol decreases blood viscosity, CBF unchanged while CBV and ICP decrease. Mannitol also reduces ICP by reducing cerebral parenchymal cell water, total effect takes 20-30min. Eventually Mannitol enters CSF and increases ICP.

How does mannitol work for ICP?

Mannitol lowers ICP through two distinct effects in the brain. The first, rheological effect, reduces blood viscosity, and promotes plasma expansion and cerebral oxygen delivery. In response, cerebral vasoconstriction occurs due to autoregulation, and cerebral blood volume is decreased.

What is cytotoxic used for?

Cytotoxic drugs (sometimes known as antineoplastics) describe a group of medicines that contain chemicals which are toxic to cells, preventing their replication or growth, and so are used to treat cancer. They can also be used to treat a number of other disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.